Joe Samples Well Drilling strives to provide the best quality groundwater possible. However, water from wells may, at times, have high concentrations of minerals that must be treated and removed prior to use. If you have water that causes staining or has a bad odor or taste, Joe Samples Well Drilling can help. With over 30 years of experience in treating groundwater, we can recommend and provide a solution. Our water treatment experts can design a system to take care of any problem that arises.
  • State licensed to install and repair water treatment equipment.

  • Free water analysis and on-site consultation.

  • One Year Money-Back Satisfaction Guarantee.

  • Warranty program that is second to none – No Fine Print!

  • No Commission Sales.

  • Water treatment technicians are factory trained to perform repairs on-site.

The Nature of Water

The need for safe, healthy water is critical to all human life. We need to consider the nature of water. Water has the ability to dissolve some portion of nearly everything with which it comes in contact. No matter if the material is natural or man-made, water seems to always dissolve, and hold in solution, some part of what it passes through or is contained in. In fact, water is referred to as ‘universal solvent’. Unfortunately, the substances that water dissolves can be unhealthy or even toxic. These substances can also ruin expensive plumbing fixtures and clothing. In addition, they can be offensive to our senses of taste, smell and aesthetic appearance.

Water can also “carry along” with it particles of sediment, dirt and rust. These are not dissolved in the water, but simply carried with the flowing water, or held suspended in standing water. Nevertheless, they can do damage just the same.

If we think back to our school days, most of us can remember studying the “hydrological cycle”. You remember the process of how water vapor condenses in the atmosphere and falls to the earth as precipitation. Once on the surface of the earth, most of the water evaporates back into the atmosphere, where it will again condense and fall back to the earth as precipitation. About 30% of the precipitation, however, does not evaporate. Instead, it seeps into the ground or runs off into streams, rivers, or lakes. As the water seeps into the ground or as it flows over the surface, it dissolves minerals and other substances contained in the ground. Under the surface, the water tends to collect in porous portions called ‘aquifers’. These aquifers are the source of our well water.

Points to Keep in Mind
  • Water as found in nature, will always have some substances dissolved in it.

  • It will always have the potential to have particles suspended in it.

  • It will always have the potential to be a suitable home to disease causing organisms.
This is true of “fresh” mountain streams, well water, and even municipally treated water systems. To achieve “pure water”, or anything close to that goal, water must be filtered or treated in some way. As you now can begin to see, the problem for us to solve will depend upon what the water has had contact with. These conditions vary greatly, not only from one region of the country to another, but also within the same general location. Water drawn from wells in the same area may not be exactly the same. The quality of water from a municipality owned treatment facility will depend upon the age and condition of the equipment. Even though the water may be classified as safe to drink, the aesthetic quality may be less than desirable. Fortunately, our knowledge of the nature of water has increased steadily over the years. The most frequently occurring problems have been studied very closely. We now know symptoms, the cause of the symptoms, and how to cure the problem itself.

Let’s examine these water problems… the symptoms you see, taste, smell or fear. Along with the symptoms we will provide the cause of the condition so that you can understand what is going on with your water supply.

Common Water Problems Water Treatment Solutions

Common Water Problems

HARDNESS – Calcium

The term hardness refers to the quantity of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water. These minerals, which primarily come from limestone type rock formations, are found to some degree in almost all natural waters. Calcium and magnesium cause problems for two principal reasons:
  • When the water is warmed, they precipitate out of solution and form a hard, rock-like scale. This scale accelerates corrosion, restricts flow, and reduces heat transfer in water heaters and boilers.

  • When they combine with soap, they react to form a curd, which interferes with cleaning, dries out skin, and leaves deposits on plumbing and clothes (bathtub ring; ring around collar etc).

Hardness is measured in parts per million (or the equivalent mg/L) or in grains per gallon (gpg). Note: if the water analysis is given in ppm as CaCO3 then 1 gpg = 17.1 ppm. (A common aspirin tablet weighs 5 grains)

There is no established limit for the acceptable level of hardness in water but it is generally considered to become problematic at around 3 gpg.

Levels of hardness are referred to as follows:
Soft Water 0 – 1 grains per gallon (gpg)
Slightly Hard Water 1 – 3.5 grains per gallon (gpg)
Moderately Hard Water 3.5 – 7 grains per gallon (gpg)
Hard Water 7 – 10.5 grains per gallon (gpg)
Very Hard Water Over 10.5 grains per gallon (gpg)

Waters which naturally contain very little hardness can also be problematic because they may be corrosive in some applications (see Acidity) Hardness removal is possible using a Sterling IM Series Water Softener.


Water which contains excess acidity tends to act aggressively towards plumbing and fixtures, causing corrosion and staining (ie. blue-green stains on fixtures from copper pipes). Relative acidity/alkalinity is measured on the pH scale, ranging from 0-14, where 7 is neutral, numbers lower than 7 are progressively more acidic, and numbers higher than seven are increasingly alkaline (basic). The pH value refers not to the quantity of acidity, but rather to the relative acidity/alkalinity of a particular sample.

Alkalinity acts as a buffer to deactivate the acidity, a process called neutralization. For example, limestone (calcium carbonate) is often applied to soil to offset the acidity which comes from acid rain and decaying organic material. The acceptable range for water is 6.5 – 8.5. Acidity cannot be removed from water. However, it can be neutralized by raising the pH with alkalinity. This is possible using an automatic backwashing filter  with appropriate media.


The presence of iron is a very common water quality problem particularly in water from deep wells. Water containing even a significant quantity of iron may appear clear when drawn, but will rapidly turn red upon exposure to air. This process is called oxidation, and involves the conversion of ferrous (dissolved) iron, which is highly soluble, to ferric (precipitated) iron, which is largely insoluble. The ferric iron then causes red/brown staining of clothes, fixtures, etc.

Iron concentration is measured in ppm or mg/l (milligrams per liter, where 1 ppm = 1mg/l). Staining usually becomes a problem at concentrations greater than 0.3 ppm. Removal is through ion exchange (water softener, Sterling IM series) or oxidation/filtration (APIR/sterling OXY3 series)

Sulfur/Hydrogen Sulfide

Hydrogen Sulfide also called sulfur is a gas which smells strongly like rotten eggs. It results from the decay of organic matter with organic sulfur and the presence of certain types of bacteria. Even very low concentrations are offensive as well as highly corrosive (silver tarnishes almost immediately upon contact with hydrogen sulfide.

Because it is in a gaseous form, H2S cannot be collected in a sample bottle for laboratory analysis. Therefore it must be tested for onsite. Depending upon the test results, it can be removed by oxidation/filtration, Sterling OXY3 series, aeration or well sanitization.


Turbidity is a measure of suspended particles in water and can range from large particles which settle out of a solution rapidly (such as sand), to extremely fine sediment which may stay suspended in solution even after standing for hours. Treatment depends upon size, which is measured in microns. Removal can be performed using an Automatic Backwash Filter and the appropriate media.

Tastes and Odors

Most tastes and odors are caused by the presence of organic matter and chlorine. The vast majority of these can be removed with activated carbon. See Automatic Backwash Filters


Sterling IM Series Water Softener
Cleaner Laundry ~ Sparkling Dishes ~ Improved Protection ~ Plumbing Protection

  • Metered Controlled Backwash.
  • Use 20% - 40% less salt than traditional mechanical heads.
  • Adjustable Regeneration Cycle Sequences.
  • Programming can be adjusted to handle your exact water conditions.
  • Adjustable Regeneration Cycle Durations.
  • Allow the flexibility to maximize salt efficiency and conserve water usage.
  • Vortex Backwash System
  • Scrubs iron and turbidity from the resin bed with each regeneration.
  • Non-corrosive Construction
  • All components are made of fiberglass, stainless steel or similar materials to provide years of service without rust or corrosion.

Our unique microprocessor – based control head monitors system performance, water consumption and more…

  • Days since last regeneration
  • Gallons since last regeneration
  • Reserve based on water usage over last 21 days
  • Water flow rates
  • Peak flow over last seven days
  • Total days since start-up
  • Total regenerations since start-up
  • Total gallons used since start-up
  • Program cycle times
  • Program sequence of cycles

If the power fails, you only need to reset the clock. All the settings and historical data will remain unchanged.

Automatic Backwash Filter

Available with the following media:

  • Works great for sediment and odor removal
  • Activated Carbon (A-10) For the removal of chlorine; taste and odor reduction
  • Filter Ag (F10) Sediment removal down to 20 micron
  • Filter Sand (FS10) Sediment reduction down to 17 micron
  • Calcium Carbonate (C10) Raises the pH of acid water and removes turbidity

Sterling OXY3 Series

Reduces Staining ~ Eliminates Odors ~ Brighter Laundry ~ Protects Plumbing ~ Corrects Acid Water Conditions
  • No Chemicals - A chemical regenerant is not required
  • No In-Line Venturi to Plug or Adjust
  • No Air Compressor - The noise and expense of compressors are eliminated
  • No Excess Air
  • No Air Release Valve Required
  • Less Maintenance – The only maintenance required is the occasional replenishment of media if the raw water pH is below 7. An easy to use fill port is provided.
  • New Model has digital head similar to the IM Series

Sterilight S12Q Ultraviolet Sterilizer

  • 99.9% destruction of bacteria, virus and protozoan cysts
  • All Stainless Steel Construction – 304 stainless steel reactor chamber. Suitable for laboratory or medical applications.
  • Easy Servicing – No need to disconnect water flow to change UV lamp.
  • No Harmful Chemicals Added – Nature’s way to protect your water without adding harmful chemicals, such as chlorine.
  • Visual and Audible Alarms – Visual lamp-on indicator and audible lamp failure indicator.
  • Economical Efficiency – The most economical way of treating your water for just pennies a day.
Joe Samples Well Drilling, Inc. | 1029 Highway 25-32 | White Pine, TN 37890

Copyright © 2007, Inner Vision Development, All Rights Reserved.

Website Developed by Inner Vision Development